# Understanding Operators in Python

This is the 3rd post in a series of learning the Python programming language.

Operators in Python are special symbols that are used to perform certain operations on one or more operands. The operands can be variables, values, or expressions.

There are several types of operators in Python, including:

# Arithmetic operators

Arithmetic operators are used for performing mathematical operations on one or more operands, which can be variables, values, or expressions.

## Addition (+)

The addition operator is used to add two or more numbers. You can also use the addition operator with variables and expressions.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x + y

print(z) # Output: 8

## Subtraction (-)

The subtraction operator is used to subtract one number from another.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x - y

print(z) # Output: 2

## Multiplication (*)

The multiplication operator is used to multiply two or more numbers.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x * y

print(z) # Output: 15

## Division (/)

The division operator is used to divide one number by another.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x / y

print(z) # Output: 1.6666666666666667

## Floor Division (//)

The floor division operator is used to divide one number by another but rounds down to the nearest whole number.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x // y

print(z) # Output: 1

## Modulus (%)

The modulus operator is used to get the remainder when one number is divided by another.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x % y

print(z) # Output: 2

## Exponent (**)

The exponent operator is used to raise a number to a power.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x ** y

print(z) # Output: 125

# Comparison operators

These operators are used to compare values and determine if they are equal, not equal, greater than, less than, greater than or equal to, or less than or equal to.

## Equal (==)

The equal operator is used to determine if two values are equal.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x == y

print(z) # Output: False

## Not Equal (!=)

The not equal operator is used to determine if two values are not equal.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x != y

print(z) # Output: True

## Greater than (>)

The greater than operator is used to determine if one value is greater than another.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x > y

print(z) # Output: True

## Less than (<)

The less than operator is used to determine if one value is less than another.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x < y

print(z) # Output: False

## Greater than or equal to (>=)

The ‘greater than or equal to’ operator is used to determine if one value is greater than or equal to another.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x >= y

print(z) # Output: True

## Less than or equal to (<=)

The ‘less than or equal to’ operator is used to determine if one value is less than or equal to another.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x <= y

print(z) # Output: False

# Logical operators

These operators are used to perform logical operations such as and, or, and not.

## AND (`and`

)

The `and`

operator returns `True`

if both the operands are true and `False`

if any of the operands is false.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x > 2 and y < 4

print(z) # Output: True

## OR (`or`

)

The `or`

operator returns `True`

if any of the operands is true and `False`

if both operands are false.

x = 5

y = 3

z = x > 2 or y < 2

print(z) # Output: True

## NOT (`not`

)

The `not`

operator is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then `not`

operator will make false.

x = 5

y = 3

z = not x > y

print(z) # Output: False

# Assignment operators

These operators are used to assign values to variables.

## Basic assignment (`=`

)

The basic assignment operator is used to assign a value to a variable.

x = 5

print(x) # Output: 5

## Addition assignment (`+=`

)

The addition assignment operator is used to add a value to a variable and assign the result to the variable.

x = 5

x += 3 # It's equivalent to x = x + 3

print(x) # Output: 8

## Subtraction assignment (`-=`

)

The subtraction assignment operator is used to subtract a value from a variable and assign the result to the variable.

x = 5

x -= 3 # It's equivalent to x = x - 3

print(x) # Output: 2

## Multiplication assignment (`*=`

)

The multiplication assignment operator is used to multiply a variable by a value and assign the result to the variable.

x = 5

x *= 3 # It's equivalent to x = x * 3

print(x) # Output: 15

## Division assignment (`/=`

)

The division assignment operator is used to divide a variable by a value and assign the result to the variable.

x = 5

x /= 3 # It's equivalent to x = x / 3

print(x) # Output: 1.6666666666666667

## Floor division assignment (`//=`

)

The floor division assignment operator is used to divide a variable by a value and assign the floor division result to the variable.

x = 5

x //= 3 # It's equivalent to x = x // 3

print(x) # Output: 1

## Modulus assignment (`%=`

)

The modulus assignment operator is used to divide a variable by a value and assign the remainder to the variable.

x = 5

x %= 3 # It's equivalent to x = x % 3

print(x) # Output: 2

## Exponent assignment (`**=`

)

The exponent assignment operator is used to raise a variable to a power and assign the result to the variable.

x = 5

x **= 3 # It's equivalent to x = x ** 3

print(x) # Output: 125

# Bitwise operators

These operators are used to perform bit-level operations on integers.

## Bitwise AND (&)

The bitwise AND operator compares each bit of the first operand to the corresponding bit of the second operand. If both bits are 1, the corresponding result bit is set to 1. Otherwise, the corresponding result bit is set to 0.

x = 5 # binary: 0101

y = 3 # binary: 0011

z = x & y

print(z) # Output: 1

## Bitwise OR (|)

The bitwise OR operator compares each bit of the first operand to the corresponding bit of the second operand. If either bit is 1, the corresponding result bit is set to 1. Otherwise, the corresponding result bit is set to 0.

x = 5 # binary: 0101

y = 3 # binary: 0011

z = x | y

print(z) # Output: 7

## Bitwise XOR (^)

The bitwise XOR operator compares each bit of the first operand to the corresponding bit of the second operand. If the bits are different, the corresponding result bit is set to 1. Otherwise, the corresponding result bit is set to 0.

x = 5 # binary: 0101

y = 3 # binary: 0011

z = x ^ y

print(z) # Output: 6

## Bitwise NOT (~)

The bitwise NOT operator inverts all the bits of the operand.

x = 5 # binary: 0101

z = ~x

print(z) # Output: -6

## Left Shift (<<)

The left shift operator shifts the bits of the operand to the left by the number of positions specified by the second operand.

x = 5 # binary: 0101

y = 2

z = x << y

print(z) # Output: 20

## Right Shift (>>)

The right shift operator shifts the bits of the operand to the right by the number of positions specified by the second operand.

x = 20 # binary: 010100

y = 2

z = x >> y

print(z) # Output: 5

# Membership operators

Membership operators are used to test whether a value is a member of a sequence (such as a string, list, or tuple) or a set.

`in`

The `in`

operator is used to test if a value is present in a sequence.

x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

y = 3

z = y in x

print(z) # Output: True

`not in`

The `not in`

operator is used to testing if a value is not present in a sequence.

x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

y = 6

z = y not in x

print(z) # Output: True

Membership operators can also be used with strings, in which case they check if the given substring is present in the string or not.

x = "Hello World"

y = "World"

z = y in x

print(z) # Output: True

The membership operator can also be used with sets. A set is a collection of unique elements, so it can be used to check if an element is present or not in a set.

x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

y = 3

z = y in x

print(z) # Output: True

# Identity operators

Identity operators are used to comparing the memory addresses of two objects.

`is`

The `is`

operator compares the memory addresses of two objects. It returns `True`

if both objects are the same object, and `False`

if they are different objects.

x = [1, 2, 3]

y = x

z = (x is y)

print(z) # Output: True

`is not`

The `is not`

operator compares the memory addresses of two objects. It returns `True`

if both objects are different objects, and `False`

if they are the same object.

x = [1, 2, 3]

y = [1, 2, 3]

z = (x is not y)

print(z) # Output: True

It’s important to notice that the `is`

operator checks for the identity of the object, while the `==`

operator checks for the equality of the values of the objects.

x = [1, 2, 3]

y = [1, 2, 3]

print(x == y) # True

print(x is y) # False

Identity operators are useful when you want to check if two variables are referencing the same object in memory. It’s also important to note that in Python when you create a new variable and assign it to an existing object, it creates a new reference to the existing object, not a new copy of the object.

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